Electronic Brake Distribution (EBD) is replacing combination, proportioning, and other valves in anti-lock brake systems (ABS) and the HCU to adjust the braking forces in the front and back. If the ABS light illuminates, the system may default to a static brake force distribution level. The driver should apply pressure evenly to all four wheels to activate the ABS system.
ABS protects the brakes of your car from being damaged if you encounter conditions such as excessive speed changes or severe curves, which can happen if you are driving on rough roads or off-road. The system uses sensors to detect when you are approaching a curve or any other hazard that could cause damage to the vehicle if not taken into account by the driver. Once this has been detected, the engine is switched off and on again which allows time for the driver to take action before they lose complete control of their car.
A number of manufacturers make components for ABS, including Bosch, Brembo, and ZF. Most major auto manufacturers produce vehicles with ABS as standard equipment, although they may be called optional features by some manufacturers.
The mean effective pressure determined from the dynamometer power is known as the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). This is the internal combustion engine's actual output at the crankshaft. The engine efficiency is taken into account when calculating brake mean effective pressure. For example, if the engine is drawing 100 kW but producing only 20 kW after accounting for losses, then the mean effective pressure would be 20 kg/cm² 100 kW / (0.8 x 0.7).
The BMEP can also be calculated by dividing the drivetrain torque by the vehicle weight. For example, if the drivetrain torque is 40 Nm and the vehicle weight is 1500 kg, then the mean effective pressure is 40 Nm / 1500 kg = 0.27 kg/cm².
Brake mean effective pressure is a measure of how much force needs to be applied to the brakes to create a given amount of deceleration. Higher BMEP values indicate better braking performance. There are two ways to increase BMEP: use larger diameter rotors or add piston-brake boosters. Larger diameter rotors require less force per unit area to stop them, so they will need less pressure to do the job.
Adding more friction material to the rotor or changing the configuration of the rotor to provide greater surface area may also help reduce stopping distance. Finally, stronger brakes will require less pressure to achieve the same result.
When engaged, the engine brake modifies the action of the engine's exhaust valves, causing the engine to function as a power-absorbing air compressor. This applies a slowing or retarding action to the vehicle's drive wheels, allowing you to improve vehicle control without engaging the service brakes*. The engine brake can be used in conjunction with, or instead of, the service brake.
The engine brake is usually activated by some form of spring mechanism which forces open the exhaust valves when sufficient pressure builds up within the pipe system. This occurs after each revolution of the engine's crankshaft when the car is moving forward, thereby producing braking power.
An engine brake is useful for reducing speed under certain conditions, for example when parking or when maneuvering at low speeds. It can also be used as a relief valve to prevent the driver's hands from being forced too far away from the steering wheel while driving at high speeds. Engaging the engine brake comes at a cost, however; it uses up valuable fuel and reduces engine performance.
Modern engines are designed to operate most efficiently at relatively high revolutions per minute (rpm). Consequently, they don't produce as much torque at lower speeds as older engines did. To make up for this loss of torque, many modern vehicles are equipped with engine brakes to provide negative acceleration.